|Singh, C.R.; Li, C.; Müller, C.J.; Hüttner, S.; Thelakkat, M.: Influence of Electron Extracting Interface Layers in Organic Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells, Advanced Materials Interfaces, 3, 1500422 (2016) -- DOI: 10.1002/admi.201500422|
The influence of different electron extracting interlayers such as calcium (Ca), zirconium acetylacetonate (ZrAcac), and a polyfluorene derivative (PFN) in combination with an aluminum (Al) cathode is investigated on the performance of bulk-heterojuntion solar cells. Two different photoactive systems, P3HT:PC61BM and PDPP:PC71BM, are selected for this study. The electroabsorption measurements have been carried out for obtaining the built-in voltage (Vbi) and transfer matrix simulations for the determination of parasitic absorption. The solar cell performance is influenced by different parameters such as diode turn-on voltage, leakage currents, built-in voltages, and parasitic absorption. The small diode turn-on voltage and high parasitic absorption in Ca contact devices limit the open circuit voltage and short circuit current, respectively. Likewise, high leakage currents using ZrAcac contact limit the fill factor in P3HT:PC61BM solar cell devices. However, the PFN-based devices with small parasitic absorption, smaller leakage currents, and a relatively high Vbi show maximum performance with both material systems. This work highlights the importance of choosing the suitable interlayers in device optimization and clearly demonstrates that not only the low work function of an electron extracting interlayer but also its optical properties and charge selectivity significantly influence the final solar cell performance.