|Bagnich, S.A.; Rudnick, A.; Schrögel, P.; Strohriegl, P.; Köhler, A.: Triplet energies and excimer formation in meta- and para-linked carbazolebiphenyl matrix materials, Philosophical transactions Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences, 373(2044), 20140446 (2015) -- DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2014.0446|
We present a spectroscopic investigation on the effect of changing the position where carbazole is attached to biphenyl in carbazolebiphenyl (CBP) on the triplet state energies and the propensity to excimer formation. For this, two CBP derivatives have been prepared with the carbazole moieties attached at the (para) 4- and 4(')-positions (pCBP) and at the (meta) 3- and 3(')-positions (mCBP) of the biphenyls. These compounds are compared to analogous mCDBP and pCDBP, i.e. two highly twisted carbazoledimethylbiphenyls, which have a high triplet energy at about 3.0eV and tend to form triplet excimers in a neat film. This torsion in the structure is associated with localization of the excited state onto the carbazole moieties. We find that in mCBP and pCBP, excimer formation is prevented by localization of the triplet excited state onto the central moiety. As conjugation can continue from the central biphenyls into the nitrogen of the carbazole in the para-connected pCBP, emission involves mainly the benzidine. By contrast, the meta-linkage in mCBP limits conjugation to the central biphenyl. The associated shorter conjugation length is the reason for the higher triplet energy of 2.8eV in mCBP compared with the 2.65eV in pCBP.